Przegląd Religioznawczy – The Religious Studies Review 2022-08-22T12:30:16+02:00 Paweł Kusiak Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Polskie Towarzystwo Religioznawcze od roku 1957 wydaje czasopismo naukowe „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy” (od roku 1960 organ PTR). Od roku 1992 czasopismo ukazuje się jako „Przegląd Religioznawczy” (tytuł angielski: The Religious Studies Review). Czasopismo zachowuje ciągłość poszczególnych numerów od 1957 r., do końca 2016 r. wydano 262 numery. W latach 1959-1967 wydano 5 numerów „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne” oraz 1 numer „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne" przekształcony w nowe czasopismo PTR „Studia z Dziejów Kościoła Katolickiego”, ukazujące się w latach 1960-67, które – po ukazaniu się 7 numerów – przejęte zostało przez Zakład Religioznawstwa PAN i dalej ukazywało się do 1991 r. jako „Studia Religioznawcze”.</p> Praktyki religijne zapośredniczone medialnie jako alternatywa dla tradycyjnej religijności Polaków w czasie pandemii COVID-19 2022-06-01T11:14:25+02:00 Rafał Boguszewski <p>Faith and religious commitment endure as the distinguishing features of Poles when compared with other countries in Europe. However, these traits also been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Due to the limitations that accompanied Poles as the pandemic unfolded, traditional participation in religious practices could not always match the same scale and extent from before the pandemic. Consequently, some discontinued or reduced their religious involvement, while others would look for alternative forms of participation in religious practices, e.g. via radio, television or the Internet. Based on the results of quantitative research (CAWI) carried out using an online panel during the second (<em>N </em>= 1,072) and third wave of the pandemic (<em>N </em>= 1,080), the paper sets out to answer the following questions: (1) how has the religiosity of Poles changed during the pandemic?; (2) have Poles participated in religious practices via television, radio and internet?; (3) do Poles treat television, radio and online religious practices as an alternative to traditional religiosity?</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Rafał Boguszewski „Śmiercionośne kościoły i bezużyteczny Bóg”. Religia w dyskursie medialnym w pierwszych miesiącach pandemii COVID-19 w Polsce – kilka socjologicznych refleksji 2022-06-01T11:06:57+02:00 Stella Grotowska <p>The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the contexts in which religion appears in the discourse of Polish conservative online outlets. The discourse was treated as a cognitive frame used to engender an intersubjective world of meanings that legitimize and motivate collective actions. The analysis targeted three news and comment websites defined as conservative. It was assumed that media representations show the social significance of religion on the one hand and, on the other, sustain and redefine it. As a result of the analysis, a number of themes that focused the attention of the media were identified: defining religion, churches and congregations of the faithful as a threat and searching for new forms of religious life that do not require face to face interaction.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Stella Grotowska Ortodoksje i herezje a pedagogika religii uprawiana w duchu krytycznego religioznawstwa 2022-06-01T11:35:41+02:00 Monika Humeniuk <p>Traditional pedagogy of religion, although strongly differentiated internally, is usually situated on the junctures between pedagogical and theological normativity. This modality of research allows one to identify paradigmatic analogies in relation to the current of revaluation of religion and phenomenology of religion in contemporary religious studies. In these traditions, represented e.g. by Mircea Eliade, Gerardus van der Leeuw or Rudolf Otto, involve the assumption that the common phenomenon of religion in all available forms and manifestations is an element of the natural and essential human experience. This experience remains internalized as a manifestation of the transcendent spiritual reality of homo religiosus. Drawing on the categories of normativity and non-normativity in the study of pedagogy of religion, on the categories of orthodoxy and heresy as well as non-theological theories of contemporary religious studies, the paper poses the question concerning the possibility of going beyond the pedagogical-theological paradigm in the study of pedagogy of religion as a subdiscipline of general pedagogy.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Monika Humeniuk Współczesna literatura piękna wobec cierpienia i zła. Przypadek twórczości Emmanuela Carrere’a 2022-06-01T11:44:49+02:00 Andrzej Kasperek <p>Suffering and evil are among the key issues addressed in various religious traditions. At the same time, it is undoubtedly one of the most important motifs in artistic culture, including literary fiction. The matter is also present in the sociological tradition: theodicy has been explored by Max Weber, Talcott Parsons or Peter L. Berger; what is more, many sociologists have treated literature as an inspiration to conduct their inquiries. The works of Emmanuel Carrere, a French writer and screenwriter, are permeated with theodicean themes related to the experience of corporality (suffering of the body or death). Yet, Carrere himself engages in several simultaneous discourses in this respect: as a Catholic, a yoga practitioner and – finally – as an atheist. Carrere’s literary oeuvre, analyzed from the sociological standpoint, provokes a discussion on the process of secularization and medicalization of suffering and evil, whilst being a singular laboratory of how to write about religious experiences in the world that is subjected to growing secularization.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Andrzej Kasperek Narracja, świat przeżywany, tożsamość – polskie narracje łączące wątki religijne i narodowe 2022-06-01T12:19:28+02:00 Anna M. Królikowska <p>Invoking combined national and religious themes, although distinctly less widespread in Poland today than it used to be, has not disappeared. The article proposes an analysis of this phenomenon using the category of the narrative, well-suited for describing phenomena spanning culture, history and social life, as well as the category of life-world derived from phenomenological sociology, as they can complement the already successfully used tool: the category of identity. As religion is based on a sacred story and an ontology which encloses immanence within a transcendent perspective, the idea of the nation seen “from the inside” also exploits a mythicized retelling of a community’s history, and in cases such as the Polish one, the national community is also situated in a transcendent ontic frame. The Polish narrative wich intertwines religious and national threads displays several variants, in which the proportions of elements of both systems of meaning differ. Three types are distinguished in the article: the romantic narrative, the classical Catholic-national narrative as the narrative of the <em>Volkskirche</em>, and the hierophanic-prophetic narrative based on the belief that there is an intense relationship between the sacred and the earthly fate of nations. The author also discusses ontologicaltheoretical and methodological assumptions in the approach to the issues in question.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Anna M. Królikowska Stosunek instytucji państwowych i kościelnych do dwudziestowiecznych polskich wizjonerek w świetle zgromadzonych danych zastanych. Wyniki badań 2022-06-01T12:30:27+02:00 Maciej Krzywosz <p>The objective of the article is to present the results of research funded by the National Science Centre in 2018–2019, aimed at finding and exploring existing data concerning the late Polish visionaries Katarzyna Szymon and Jadwiga Bartel. The former lived between 1907 and 1986 in Silesia, while the other lived in the Kuyavia region between 1911 and 1993. During investigations conducted in 2019, 287 archival units spanning approximately 20,670 pages were consulted in 9 secular and church archives to find material which could provide new information about those visionaries. The archival research yielded previously unknown details about their lives and people who supported them, though the particulars were mainly related to secular matters or those on the juncture of the secular and religious domains.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Maciej Krzywosz Restrykcje a zaangażowanie religijne amerykańskich Żydów – reinterpretacja tezy o restrykcyjności 2022-06-01T12:39:11+02:00 Łukasz Kutyło <p>This paper focuses on the strict norms one encounters primarily in conservative religious groups. Such precepts regulate the behavior of their members, distinguishing them from the social environment. There is a view that strict norms resolve the “free-rider problem” and foster more profound commitment of the believers. It seems, however, that such stricture is part of a more universal mechanism, which is involved in the process of social categorization. The norms establish a clear division between “us” and “others,” enhancing the bond with the group. Attempt has been made to verify this conjecture based on the data from a survey by the Pew Research Center concerned with American Jews.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Łukasz Kutyło Społeczny wymiar epistemologii w kontekście relacji wewnątrz grup religijnych – tropy teoretyczne 2022-06-01T13:43:56+02:00 Łukasz Remisiewicz <p>This paper addresses the role of epistemology in relation to the bond formation and cohesion of religious groups. Using the theoretical framework outlined by Stephan Fuchs, the author shows that epistemology can be interpreted in a twofold manner. First, it may be an outcome of social relations (cohesive groups produce more realism internally, less cohesive groups generate more constructivism and relativism). Second, conscious use of epistemology can also be an element that stabilizes or destabilizes groups and thus becomes a tool to influence group cohesion. A reflective approach to the social role of epistemology may prove to be an interesting path for sociology of religion in its inquiry into various religious phenomena, such as the rise of religious radicalism or secularization.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Łukasz Remisiewicz Religijne rytuały przejścia w środowisku młodzieży w latach 2009–2020. Perspektywa socjologiczna 2022-06-01T13:51:31+02:00 Maria Sroczyńska <p>The article discusses an issue to which researchers of religious phenomena attach considerable importance, namely the attitude of young people to religious rites of passage. Practices such as baptism, first communion, confirmation, church marriage and funeral only occur once in a lifetime and allow new patterns of behavior to be assigned to individuals within a religious group. Stronger identification with faith, and consistent participation in observances in particular, promote a higher appreciation of their importance. With the hindsight of a decade, one notices a distanced attitude of high school graduates from the Świętokrzyskie region towards rituals that constitute their previous or anticipated experience (especially confirmation, and, to a lesser extent, communion or church wedding). This mainly concerns the religious significance of the rites, while the functions related to integration, tradition, ludicity and self-presentation seem relatively stable, also in the case of non-practitioners. The question of the role of contemporary socialization agendas with respect to transmission of religious culture remains open.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Maria Sroczyńska Pytanie o status chrześcijaństwa dziś – sekularyzacja jako pluralizacja 2022-06-01T14:06:39+02:00 Antoni Torzewski <p>The text sets out from the proposition that if Christianity still aspires to be present in contemporary culture and society, it has to change fundamentally; it has to abandon its claims to being “the only one” and to universal truthfulness. However, this immediately begs the question whether such a change is even possible. Can Christianity, while still remaining Christianity, can satisfy the demand of pluralism? Thus, on the one hand, the paper aims to interpret secularization as pluralization (drawing on the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo, for instance). On the other hand, it attempts to reflect on the fundamental premises of the Christian religion and, therefore, ask about the possible existence of a pluralistic religion (through reference to the writings of Leszek Kołakowski).</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Antoni Torzewski „Polak-katolik”? O związkach między deklarowaną religijnością a poczuciem tożsamości narodowej Polaków 2022-06-01T14:17:07+02:00 Artur Wysocki <p>The article presents an analysis of the relationship between the degree of declared religiosity and the sense of national identity among Poles. By adopting the perspective of the sociology of nation and drawing on its achievements, it aims to answer two questions: what is the place of Catholicism in the socially defined criteria of belonging to Polishness, and determine the extent to which the degree of declared religiosity influences the sense of national identity in Poles. Empirical data for the analysis originates from representative polls on the social criteria of Polishness conducted by CBOS and Kantar Public (formerly OBOP, TNS) between 1988 and 2018. In theoretical terms, the study draws on the model of public opinion proposed by Zbigniew Bokszański to conceptualize and research collective national identity. The conducted analysis demonstrates for instance that the Catholic faith is at the bottom of the hierarchy of social criteria of Polishness; it also reveals an increasingly conspicuous polarization of attitudes of people admitting varying degrees of religiosity towards the preferred model of national identity.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Artur Wysocki Procesy głębokiej mediatyzacji w Kościele Adwentystów Dnia Siódmego w Polsce w czasie pandemii COVID-19* 2022-06-01T12:11:53+02:00 Marta Kołodziejska <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, use of digital media became necessary to maintain community continuity for numerous churches. Given their increasing “entanglement” with digital media, it is important to ask how to study the relationship between religious institutions and media. This paper advances a constructivist, actor-centric conception of mediatization, according to which media become an integral part of all spheres of social life, including religion. Based on a study of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Poland, it shows that during the pandemic intensified mediatization processes and related trends led on the one hand to a shift of media awareness manifesting in media practices and, on the other, to a transformation of the authority of pastors resulting from the necessity of sharing digital skills.</p> 2022-06-01T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Marta Kołodziejska Representation of the Old Believers in Poland in ethnographic photography 2022-06-29T10:00:29+02:00 Dorota Jewdokimow <p>The Old Believers are a religious and ethnic minority dwelling in the northeastern part of Poland. That religious group was formed as a result of the reforms within the Russian Orthodox Church, which took place in the 17th century. A large proportion of the Russian community objected to the radical changes introduced by patriarch Nikon, which gave rise to the <em>Raskol</em>. The authorities responded with mass repressions resulting in the migrations of Russians abroad, also to Poland. After the Second World War, the Old Believers in Poland attracted considerable interest of both journalists and academics. The post-war period saw a fair a number of publications describing the culture of the Old Ritualists that yielded a relatively comprehensive image of that community. The aim of this paper is to outline the mechanism behind the portrayal of the Old Believers through photography, which in the investigations of cultural anthropologists becomes the tool of capturing cultural reality, as well as the object of their research. Here, the analysis is concerned with the collection of ethnographic photographs by Eugeniusz Iwaniec. The author goes beyond the limitations of traditional understanding of ethnographic photography, qualified by virtue of its subject matter, extending the scope of such a notion by integrating the perspective of visual anthropology to reveal additional aspects of the analysed material, including the authors, the concept, the subject and the reception, which later become key reference points for the analysis.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Dorota Jewdokimow How we were raised: antisemitism, xenophobia, or religious hatred? 2022-08-22T12:30:16+02:00 Jerzy Kojkoł Paweł Kusiak Natalia Bruska <p>Many simplifications can be seen in the discussions on the relations between Poles and Jews. The circling demons of the past and, what is worse, the present also put the mind to sleep, causing more stereotypes and myths than truth in the public sphere. Most of us easily judge others without verifying opinions and facts. Thus, we ascribe the same characteristics to the entire group, no matter how different individuals are. In this way, we create a simplified picture of reality that can function in our consciousness for a long time. It is a natural process, as every person has a tendency to create stereotypes that often lead to prejudice and discrimination.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Jerzy Kojkoł, Paweł Kusiak, Natalia Bruska